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وكل املي الدعاء لوالدي بالرحمة والغفران
لكم ودي 1- The properties of human language are 1. Arbitrariness.
3. Cultural Transmission.
2-The difference between phonemes and allophones is simply that allophones are variations within phonemes. Phonemes are groups of sounds that are thought of as a single sound. An allophone is contained within the phoneme
. 3- Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable)
4- An open syllable is a syllable which ends in a vowel. A closed syllable is a syllable where there is a consonant after the vowel. For example, the word basic has two syllables. The first one, ba-, s an open syllable because it ends in a vowel. But the second one, -sic, is a closed syllable because the vowel is before the c.
5-Some methods that we most often use to create new words are: 1) Compounding - joining two or more morphemes together to make one word ex) chairperson 2) Conversion - using a word from one part of speech in another part of speech ex) eyeball; She's been eyeballing those shoes for weeks. (noun to verb) 3) Affixation - adding suffixes or prefixes to existing words ex) deshopping; “to buy something intending to use it once, then return it for a refund” 4) Clipping - reducing longer words ex) flu; from influenza 5) Blending/Truncating - mixing words together, using parts of them ex) fanfic; fan and fiction 6) Acronyms ex) imao; in my arrogant opinion (when I first saw this on Facebook, I had to google it) 7) Using brand names ex) Xerox; copy 8) Borrowing words from other languages
6-Free morphemes are morphemes that can stand by themselves as single word
For example: open and tour
Bound morphemes are morphemes that cannot normally stand alone and are typically attached to another form.For example: re-, -ist, -ed, -s (prefixes and suffixes
7-Free and bound morphemes From these examples, we can make a broad distinction between two types of morphemes. There are free morphemes, that is, morphemes that can stand by themselves as single words, for example, open and tour. There are also bound morphemes, which are those forms that cannot normally stand alone and are typically attached to another form, exemplified as re-, -ist, -ed, -s. all affixes (prefixes and suffixes) in English are bound morphemes. The free morphemes can generally be identified as the set of separate English word forms such as basic nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. When they are used with bound morphemes attached, the basic word forms are technically known as stems. For example: Un - dress - ed care - less -ness Prefix stem suffix stem suffix suffix (bound) (free) (bound) (free) (bound) (bound)
8-Noun (N): a word such as boy, bicycle or freedom used to describe a person, thing or idea. Article (Art): a word such as a, an or the used with a noun. Adjective (Adj): a word such as happy or strange used with a noun to provide more information. Verb (V): a word such as go, drown or know used to describe an action, event or state. Adverb (Adv): a word such as slowly or really used with a verb or adjective to provide more information Preposition (Prep): a word such as in or with used with a noun phrase. Pronoun (Pro): a word such as it or them used in place of a noun or noun phrase. Conjunction: a word such as and or because used to make connections between words, phrases and sentences Interjections are words that show emotion. They are not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence
9- A prototype is an early example, model or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is designed to test and trial a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one.[
-Agent and theme
---10 Agent is the semantic role of the noun phrase identifying the one who performs the action of the verb in an event (The boy kicked the ball) Theme is the semantic role of the noun phrase used to identify the entity involved in or affected by the action of the verb in an event (e.g. The boy kicked the ball)
11-Pragmatics is the study of the aspects of meaning and language use that are dependent on the speaker, the addressee and other features of the context of utterance,
12-Hedging is an essential part of everyday communication. It is a discourse strategy which is used to reduce commitment to the force or truth of an utterance to achieve an appropriate pragmatic effect. In recent years hedges have therefore attracted increased attention in Pragmatics and Applied Linguistics, with studies approaching the concept of hedging from various perspectives,
/13- baby begin making cooing sounds when he's about 2 to 3 months old. When you look right at him, smile and imitate his sounds, he learns that people take turns in conversation. When you copy his sounds, he learns what he's said is important and likely makes the sounds again. Such sound play is important in developing early words.
14-Positive transfer of learning experiences, information and skills and the negative transfer of the same in the learning experience is reviewed